Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

– provides guidance on the disclosure requirements under IFRS for IAS 12 income tax and provides a comprehensive example of a potential disclosures for these income taxes/corporate income tax.

Disclosure corporate income tax – Guidance

Relationship between tax expense and accounting profit

Entities can explain the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit by disclosing reconciliations between: [IAS 12.81(c), IAS 12.85]

  1. tax expense and the product of accounting profit multiplied by the applicable tax rate, or
  2. the average effective tax rate and the applicable tax rate.

The applicable tax rate can either be the domestic rate of tax in the country in which the entity is domiciled, or it can be determined by aggregating separate reconciliations prepared using the domestic rate in each individual jurisdiction. Entities should choose the method that provides the most meaningful information to users.

Where an entity uses option (a) above and reconciles tax expense to the tax that is calculated by multiplying accounting profit with the applicable tax rate, the standard does not specify whether the reconciliation should be done for total tax expense, or only for tax expense attributable to continuing operations. While RePorting Co. Plc is reconciling total tax expense, it is equally acceptable to use profit from continuing operations as a starting point.

Initial recognition exemption – subsequent amortisation

The amount shown in the reconciliation of prima facie income tax payable to income tax expense as ‘amortisation of intangibles’ represents the amortisation of a temporary difference that arose on the initial recognition of the asset and for which no deferred tax liability has been recognised in accordance with IAS 12.15(b). The initial recognition exemption only applies to transactions that are not a business combination and do not affect either accounting profit or taxable profit.

Taxation of share-based payments

For the purpose of these illustrative financial statements, it is assumed that deductions are available for the payments made by RePorting Co. Plc into the employee share trust for the acquisition of the deferred shares (see note 21). In our example, the payments are made and shares acquired upfront which gives rise to deferred tax liabilities. It is also assumed that no tax deductions can be claimed in relation to the employee option plan.

However, this will not apply in all circumstances to all entities. The taxation of share-based payments and the accounting thereof is a complex area and specific advice should be obtained for each individual circumstance. IAS 12 provides further guidance on the extent to which deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss and in equity. [IAS 12.68A-68C]

Income tax recognised outside profit or loss

Under certain circumstances, current and deferred tax is recognised outside profit or loss either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, depending on the item that the tax relates to. Entities must disclose separately: [IAS 1.90, IAS 12.81(a),(ab), IAS 12.62A]

  1. the amount of income tax relating to each component of other comprehensive income, including reclassification adjustments (either in the statement of comprehensive income or in the notes), and
  2. the aggregate current and deferred tax relating to items that are charged directly to equity (without being recognised in other comprehensive income).Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Examples of items that are charged directly to equity are: [IAS 12.62A]

  1. the equity component on compound financial instruments
  2. share issue costs
  3. adjustments to retained earnings, eg as a result of a change in accounting policy.

Unrecognised temporary differences

The disclosure of unrecognised temporary differences in relation to the overseas subsidiary has been made for illustrative purposes only. The taxation of overseas subsidiaries will vary from case to case, and tax advice should be obtained to assess whether there are any potential tax consequences and temporary differences that should be disclosed.

Other potential disclosures

The following requirements are not illustrated in this publication

Issue not disclosed

Relevant disclosures or references

Changes in the applicable tax rate [IAS 12.81(d)]

Explain the changes (see illustrative disclosure below).

Deductible temporary differences and unused tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised [IAS 12.81(e)]

Disclose amount and expiry date.

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax 

The payment of dividends will affect the entity’s income tax expense (eg a lower tax rate applies to distributed profits) [IAS 12.82A, IAS 12.87A-87C]

Explain the nature of the income tax consequences and disclose the amounts, if they are practicably determinable

Dividends were proposed or declared but not recognised as liability in the financial statements [IAS 12.81(i)]

Disclose the income tax consequences, if any.

Tax-related contingent liabilities or contingent assets, and changes in tax rates or tax laws enacted after the reporting period [IAS 12.88]

Provide disclosures required under IAS 37 – Disclosures and IAS 10 – Disclosures.

Business combination: changes in the deferred tax assets of the acquirer recognised as a result of the combination [IAS 12.81(j)]

Disclose the amount of the change

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax 

Deferred tax benefits acquired in a business combination but only recognised in a subsequent period [IAS 12.81(k)]

Describe the event or change in circumstances that caused the deferred tax asset to be recognised.

Changes in tax rate

Where the applicable tax rate changed during the year, the adjustments to the deferred tax balances appear as another reconciling item in the reconciliation of prima facie income tax payable to income tax expense. The associated explanations could be along the following lines: [IAS 12.81(d)]

The reduction of the Neverland corporation tax rate from 30% to 28% was substantively enacted on 26 June 2020 and will be effective from 1 April 2021. As a result, the relevant deferred tax balances have been remeasured. Deferred tax expected to reverse in the year to 31 December 2021 has been measured using the effective rate that will apply in Neverland for the period (28.5%). For years ending after 31 December 2021, the group has used the new tax rate of 28%.

Further reductions to the Neverland tax rate have been announced which will reduce the rate by 1% per annum to 24% by 1 April 2025. However, these changes are expected to be enacted separately each year. As a consequence, they had not been substantively enacted at the balance sheet date and, therefore, are not recognised in these financial statements.

The impact of the change in tax rate has been recognised in tax expense in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items previously recognised outside profit or loss. For the group, such items include in particular remeasurements of post-employment benefit liabilities and the expected tax deduction in excess of the recognised expense for equity-settled share-based payments.

Disclosure corporate income tax exampleIAS 12 Income taxes Corporate taxes

6 Income tax expense

This note provides an analysis of the group’s income tax expense, and shows what amounts are recognised directly in equity and how the tax expense is affected by non-assessable and non-deductible items. It also explains significant estimates made in relation to the group’s tax position.

6(a) Income tax expense

Relevant items – IAS 12.79, IAS 12.81(g)(ii)

Table – IAS 12.80(a)(b)(c)

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Current tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Current tax on profits for the year

17,116

11,899

Adjustments for current tax of prior periods

-369

135

Total current tax expense

16,747

12,034

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Deferred income tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Decrease/(increase) in deferred tax assets (note 8(e))

-4

-1,687

(Decrease)/increase in deferred tax liabilities (note 8(e))

-177

1,399

Total deferred tax expense/(benefit)

-181

-288

Income tax expense

16,566

11,746

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Income tax expense is attributable to:

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Profit from continuing operations

18,182

11,575

Profit from discontinued operation

384

171

16,566

11,746

6(b) Significant estimates – uncertain tax position and tax-related contingencyDisclosure profit or loss items

The tax legislation in relation to expenditures incurred in association with the establishment of the retail division is unclear. The group considers it probable that a tax deduction of CU1,933,000 will be available and has calculated the current tax expense on this basis. [IAS 1.122, IAS 1.125, IFRIC 23.A5]

However, the group has applied for a private ruling to confirm its interpretation. If the ruling is not favourable, this would increase the group’s current tax payable and current tax expense by CU580,000 respectively. The group expects to get a response, and therefore certainty about the tax position, before the next interim reporting date. [IAS 37.86, IAS 37.88] Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

6(c) Reconciliation of expected income tax to estimated income tax expense

Relevant items – IAS 12.81(c)(i), IAS 12.84, IAS 12.85

Table – IAS 12.81(d), IAS 12.85, IAS 12.80(b), IAS 12.80(f), IAS 12.80(e)

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Profit from continuing operations before income tax expense

51,086

39,617

Profit from discontinued operation before income tax expense

1,111

570

Total profit before tax in financial statements

52,197

40,187

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Tax rate at the Neverland tax rate

30%

30%

Expected income tax expense

15,659

12,056

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Reconciliation to estimated income tax expense:

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Tax effect (i.e. at 30% tax) of reported amounts which are not deductible (taxable) in calculating taxable income

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Goodwill impairment

723

Amortisation of intangibles

92

158

Entertainment

82

79

Employee option plan

277

99

Dividends paid to preference shareholders

378

378

Recycling of foreign currency translation reserve on sale of subsidiary, see note 15

-51

Sundry items Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

189

14

Difference in overseas tax rates (lower) higher than 30%

-248

-127

Adjustments for current tax of prior periods

-369

135

Research and development tax credit

-121

-101

Previously unrecognised tax losses used to reduce deferred tax expense (refer to note 4(e))

-945

Previously unrecognised tax losses now recouped to reduce current tax expense Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

-45

Estimated income tax expense in profit or loss

16,566

11,746

6(d) Amounts recognised directly in equity

Table – IAS 12.81(a), IAS 12.62A

Amounts in CU’000

Notes

2020

2019

Aggregate current and deferred tax arising in the reporting period and not recognised in net profit or loss or other comprehensive income but directly debited or credited to equity:

Current tax: share buy-back transaction costs

9(a)

-15

Deferred tax: Convertible note and share issue costs

8(e)

990

975

6(e) Tax losses

Table – IAS 12.81(e) Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Unused tax losses for which no deferred tax asset has been recognised

1,740

2,796

Potential tax benefit at 30%

522

839

The unused tax losses were incurred by a dormant subsidiary that is not likely to generate taxable income in the foreseeable future. They can be carried forward indefinitely. See note 8(e) for information about recognised tax losses and significant judgements made in relation to them. Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

6(f) Unrecognised temporary differences

Table – IAS 12.81(f), IAS 12.87

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Unused tax losses for which no deferred tax asset has been recognised

Foreign currency translation

2,190

1,980

Undistributed earnings

1,350

3,540

1,980

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Unrecognised deferred tax liabilities relating to the above temporary differences

1,062

594

Temporary differences of CU2,190,000 (2019 – CU1,980,000) have arisen as a result of the translation of the financial statements of the group’s subsidiary in China. However, a deferred tax liability has not been recognised as the liability will only crystallise in the event of disposal of the subsidiary, and no such disposal is expected in the foreseeable future.

RePorting Co. Retail Limited has undistributed earnings of CU1,350,000 (2019 – nil) which, if paid out as dividends, would be subject to tax in the hands of the recipient. An assessable temporary difference exists, but no deferred tax liability has been recognised as RePorting Co. Plc is able to control the timing of distributions from this subsidiary and is not expected to distribute these profits in the foreseeable future

Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Disclosure profit or loss items

Disclosure profit or loss items

Here is an attempt to focus users of financial statements to important and less important financial transactions and events that have to be in the disclosure profit or loss items part in the Notes. Under the Better Communication in Financial Reporting-initiative, IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers, Financial instruments and IAS 12 Taxes are in general considered representing an important part of profit or loss reporting. Then there are a lot of profit or loss items that need to be more-or-less grouped, each in itself may not be significant enough or so.

Some of these items just have to be disclosed but do not (always) draw immediate attention, others are important but not important enough for a single note in the financial statements.

Here is a potential example discussion of splitting profit or loss items in important (maybe even material?) profit or loss items and other profit or loss items. The content in here is presented in the following order:

ENJOY IT, IT IS WORTH YOUR WHILE!

Disclosure important profit or loss items guidance

[IAS1.97, IAS1.98]

Where items of income and expense are important (in IFRS jargon ‘material‘), their nature and amount shall be Disclosure profit or loss itemsdisclosed separately either in the statement of comprehensive income, the statement of profit or loss (where applicable) or in the notes. Circumstances that would give rise to the separate disclosure of items of income and expense include:

  1. write-downs of inventories to net realisable value or of property, plant and equipment to recoverable amount, as well as reversals of such write-downs
  2. restructurings of the activities of an entity and reversals of any provisions for the costs of restructuring
  3. disposals of items of property, plant and equipment
  4. disposals of investments Disclosure profit or loss items
  5. discontinued operations (refer to note 15)
  6. litigation settlements Disclosure profit or loss items
  7. other reversals of provisions, and Disclosure profit or loss items
  8. gains or losses recognised in relation to a business combination.

Read more

Inventory costing 2 better understand

Inventory costing

Inventory costing – is about costs allocated to value inventory in stock at the end of a reporting period and calculate the costs of sales/gross profit earned in a period. Most operations comprise retail or wholesale operations, using relatively simple inventory costing systems such as FIFO, LIFO or Average Costs, other operations such as manufacturing or servicing/construction use standard or actual costing systems.

Also keep in mind that the general rule in IFRS is that inventory is measured as the lesser of cost or net realizable value.

For context Net realizable value

There are a number of different inventory costing methods available for Inventory / Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) valuations/allocations. Perpetual systems continuously update the inventory, avoiding issues inherent with periodic based systems. For cost flow, there are three (3) regularly used cost methodologies in the world: FIFO, LIFO, and Weighted-Average Cost (also commonly referred to as Average Cost).

  1. FIFO or First-In, First-Out, always assigns the cost of the earliest unit available at the time of sale to COGS, regardless of which unit from the inventory pool is used.
  2. LIFO or Last-In, First-Out, always assigns the cost of the newest unit available at the time of sale to COGS, regardless of which unit from the inventory pool is used.
  3. Average Cost calculates the cost that is assigned to COGS and inventory each period closing with new units purchased and added to the inventory.

However, there are also more complex inventory costing systems that facilitate the (financial and operational) management of manufacturing and servicing activities, reference is made to standard costs and actual costs.

To visualize the difference of these three systems (FIFO, LIFO and Average Costs) here is a simple case in quantities of one product in inventory only:

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Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

– provides a narrative providing guidance on users of financial statements’ needs to present financial disclosures in the notes to the financial statements grouped in more logical orders. But there is and never will be a one-size fits all.

Here it has been decided to separately disclose financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities, because of the distinct different nature of these classes of assets and liabilities and the resulting different types of disclosures, risks and tabulations.

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities guidance

Disclosing financial assets and liabilities (financial instruments) in one note

Users of financial reports have indicated that they would like to be able to quickly access all of the information about the entity’s financial assets and liabilities in one location in the financial report. The notes are therefore structured such that financial items and non-financial items are discussed separately. However, this is not a mandatory requirement in the accounting standards.

Accounting policies, estimates and judgements

For readers of Financial Statements it is helpful if information about accounting policies that are specific to the entityDisclosure financial assets and liabilitiesand about significant estimates and judgements is disclosed with the relevant line items, rather than in separate notes. However, this format is also not mandatory. For general commentary regarding the disclosures of accounting policies refer to note 25. Commentary about the disclosure of significant estimates and judgements is provided in note 11.

Scope of accounting standard for disclosure of financial instruments

­

IFRS 7 does not apply to the following items as they are not financial instruments as defined in paragraph 11 of IAS 32:

  1. prepayments made (right to receive future good or service, not cash or a financial asset)
  2. tax receivables and payables and similar items (statutory rights or obligations, not contractual), or
  3. contract liabilities (obligation to deliver good or service, not cash or financial asset).

While contract assets are also not financial assets, they are explicitly included in the scope of IFRS 7 for the purpose of the credit risk disclosures. Liabilities for sales returns and volume discounts (see note 7(f)) may be considered financial liabilities on the basis that they require payments to the customer. However, they should be excluded from financial liabilities if the arrangement is executory. the Reporting entity Plc determined this to be the case. [IFRS 7.5A]

Classification of preference shares

Preference shares must be analysed carefully to determine if they contain features that cause the instrument not to meet the definition of an equity instrument. If such shares meet the definition of equity, the entity may elect to carry them at FVOCI without recycling to profit or loss if not held for trading.

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Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Certain interest rate benchmarks including LIBOR, EURIBOR and EONIA are being or have recently been reformed.

What are interest rate benchmarks?

Interest rate benchmark are used to determine

  1. the amount of interest payable for a wide range of financial products such as derivatives, bonds, loans, structured products and mortgages, and
  2. the valuation of financial products.

The most common examples of interest rate benchmarks used in financial contracts across the world are the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and for the Euro, the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (EURIBOR) and Euro Overnight Index Average (EONIA).

Why are these benchmarks being reformed?

As benchmark rates are fundamental to so many financial contracts, they need to be robust, reliable and fit for purpose. Each of these interest rate benchmarks subject to reform were based on the rates at which banks lend to each other in the interbank market.

Financial regulatory authorities have expressed their concern that because interbank lending transactions have significantly decreased in recent years, the Reform of interest rate benchmarksbenchmark rates may no longer be representative or reliable.

This concern has resulted in recommendations made by the Financial Stability Board towards the global financial industry to reform the major interest rate benchmarks and to develop a set of alternative rates that are more representative of the current financial environment.

IFRS Reporting disclosure amendments

The amendments made to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures provide certain reliefs in relation to interest rate benchmark reform. The reliefs relate to hedge accounting and have the effect that the reforms should not generally cause hedge accounting to terminate. However, any hedge ineffectiveness should continue to be recorded in the income statement. Given the pervasive nature of hedges involving interbank offered rates (IBOR)-based contracts, the reliefs will affect companies in all industries.

Entities relying on the relief must disclose:

  1. the significant interest rate benchmarks to which the entity’s hedging relationships are exposed
  2. the extent of the risk exposure that the entity manages that is directly affected by the interest rate benchmark reform
  3. how the entity is managing the process of transition to alternative benchmark rates
  4. a description of significant assumptions or judgements that the entity made in applying the reliefs, and
  5. the nominal amount of the hedging instruments in those hedging relationships. [IFRS 7.24H]

Information about how the entity is managing the transition process will provide users with an indication of the extent to which management is prepared for the transition. For example, this could include explanations about differences in fallback provisions between the hedged item and the hedging instruments.

The amendments are not clear whether the disclosure of the extent of the risk exposure that the entity manages could be provided on a qualitative rather than quantitative basis. However, numerical disclosures may be more useful for users.

Accounting policies relating to hedge accounting will need to be updated to reflect the reliefs. Fair value disclosures may also be impacted due to transfers between levels in the fair value hierarchy as markets become more / less liquid.

Entities should consider whether further disclosure of the impending replacement of IBOR should be provided in other parts of the annual report, for example in management’s discussion and analysis.

This Example Disclosure Related party transactions shows the disclosures an entity would have to add if it has a loan with an interest rate based on 3-month GPB LIBOR and a cash flow hedge in the form of a floating-to-fixed rate interest rate swap that is referenced to LIBOR. The disclosures assume that the entity has adopted the hedge accounting requirements of IFRS 9.

While primarily illustrating the disclosures required by the amendments made to IFRS 7 and other hedge accounting disclosures affected by IBOR reform, extractsReform of interest rate benchmarks of other disclosures from the main body of the publication have been included, to provide some context for the additional disclosures.

New or revised disclosures are highlighted with shading. This appendix does not illustrate disclosures that may be required if the terms of the loan and the swap have moved to new benchmark rates.

12 Financial risk management (extracts)

12(a) Derivatives (extracts)

(iv) Hedge effectiveness (extracts)

Hedge ineffectiveness for interest rate swaps is assessed using the same principles as for hedges of foreign currency purchases. It may occur due to:

  • the credit value/debit value adjustment on the interest rate swaps which is not matched by the loan
  • differences in critical terms between the interest rate swaps and loans, and
  • the effects of the forthcoming reforms to GBP LIBOR, because these might take effect at a different time and have a different impact on the hedged item (the floating-rate debt) and the hedging instrument (the interest rate swap used to hedge the debt). Further details of these reforms are set out below. [IFRS 7.22B(c), IFRS 7.23D]

Ineffectiveness of CUXX,XXX has been recognised in relation to the interest rate swaps in other gains or losses in profit or loss for 2020 (2019 CUXX,XXX). The significant increase in ineffectiveness in the current year was caused by the expectation that the interest rate swap and the hedged debt will move from GBP LIBOR to SONIA at different dates. [IFRS 7.24C(b)(ii)]

12(b) Market riskReform of interest rate benchmarks

[IFRS 7.33]

(ii) Cash flow and fair value interest rate risk

[IFRS 7.21C]

The group’s main interest rate risk arises from long-term borrowings with variable rates, which expose the group to cash flow interest rate risk. Group policy is to maintain at least 50% of its borrowings at fixed rate, using floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps to achieve this when necessary.

Generally, the group enters into long-term borrowings at floating rates and swaps them into fixed rates that are lower than those available if the group borrowed at fixed rates directly. During 2020 and 2019, the group’s borrowings at variable rate were mainly denominated in Oneland currency units and US dollars. Except for the GBP LIBOR floating rate debt noted below, other variable interest rates were not referenced to interbank offered rates (IBORs) that will be affected by the IBOR reforms. [IFRS7.22A(a),(b), IFRS7.33(a),(b)]

Included in the variable rate borrowings is a 10-year floating-rate debt of CU10,000,000 (2019 CU10,000,000) whose interest rate is based on 3 month GBP LIBOR. To hedge the variability of in cash flows of this loan, the group has entered into a 10-year interest rate swap with key terms (principal amount, payment dates, repricing dates, currency) that match those of the debt on which it pays a fixed rate and receives a variable rate. [IFRS 7.24H(a)]

The group’s borrowings and receivables are carried at amortised cost. The borrowings are periodically contractually repriced (see below) and to that extent are also exposed to the risk of future changes in market interest rates.

The exposure of the group’s borrowings to interest rate changes and the contractual re-pricing dates of the borrowings at the end of the reporting period are as follows: [IFRS 7.22A(c), IFRS 7.34(a), IFRS 7.24H(b)]

Amounts in CU’000

2020

%of total

2019

% of total

Variable rate borrowings – GBP LIBOR

10,000

10%

10,000

12%

Variable rate borrowings – non-IBOR

43,669

46%

40,150

47%

Fixed rate borrowings – repricing or maturity dates:

– Less than one year

4,735

5%

3,895

5%

– 1 – 5 years

26,626

27%

19,550

23%

– Over 5 years

11,465

12%

11,000

13%

Total

97,515

100%

84,595

100%

An analysis by maturities is provided in note 12(d) below. The percentage of total loans shows the proportion of loans that are currently at variable rates in relation to the total amount of borrowings.

Instruments used by the group

Swaps currently in place cover approximately 37% (2019 – 37%) of the variable loan principal outstanding. The fixed interest rates of the swaps range between 7.8% and 8.3% (2019 – 9.0% and 9.6%), and the variable rates of the loans are between 0.5% and 1.0% above the 90 day bank bill rate or LIBOR which, at the end of the reporting period, were 8.2% and x.x% respectively (2019 – 9.4% and x.x%). [IFRS 7.22B(a), IFRS 7.23B]

The swap contracts require settlement of net interest receivable or payable every 90 days. The settlement dates coincide with the dates on which interest is payable on the underlying debt. [IFRS 7.22B(a)]

Effects of hedge accounting on the financial position and performance

The effects of the interest rate swaps on the group’s financial position and performance are as follows:

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Interest rate swaps

Carrying amount (current and non-current asset)

[IFRS 7.24A(a)(b)]

453

809

Notional amount – LIBOR based swaps [IFRS 7.24H(b),(e)]

10,000

10,000

Maturity date [IFRS 7.23B(a)]

2030

2030

Hedge ratio [IFRS 7.22B(c)]

1 : 1

1 : 1

Change in fair value of outstanding hedging instruments since 1 January [IFRS 7.24A(c)]

xx

xx

Change in value of hedged item used to determine hedge effectiveness [IFRS 7.24B(b)(i)]

xx

xx

Weighted average hedged rate for the year [IFRS 7.23B(b)]

x.x%

x.x%

Notional amount – non-LIBOR based swaps [IFRS 7.24H(b),(e)]

10,010

8,440

Maturity date [IFRS 7.23B(a)]

2020

2019

Hedge ratio [IFRS 7.22B(c)]

1 : 1

1 : 1

Change in fair value of outstanding hedging instruments since 1 January [IFRS 7.24A(c)]

-202

1,005

Change in value of hedged item used to determine hedge effectiveness [IFRS 7.24B(b)(i)]

202

1,005

Weighted average hedged rate for the year [IFRS 7.23B(b)]

8.1%

9.

xx) Significant judgements

Interest rate benchmark reform

Following the financial crisis, the reform and replacement of benchmark interest rates such as GBP LIBOR and other interbank offered rates (‘IBORs’) has become a priority for global regulators. There is currently uncertainty around the timing and precise nature of these changes. [IFRS 7.24H(b)]

To transition existing contracts and agreements that reference GBP LIBOR to SONIA, adjustments for term differences and credit differences might need to be applied to SONIA, to enable the two benchmark rates to be economically equivalent on transition.

Group treasury is managing the group’s GBP LIBOR transition plan. The greatest change will be amendments to the contractual terms of the GBP LIBOR-referenced floating-rate debt and the associated swap and the corresponding update of the hedge designation. However, the changed reference rate may also affect other systems, processes, risk and valuation models, as well as having tax and accounting implications. [IFRS 7.24H(c)]

Relief applied

The group has applied the following reliefs that were introduced by the amendments made to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments in September 2019:

  • When considering the ‘highly probable’ requirement, the group has assumed that the GBP LIBOR interest rate on which the group’s hedged debt is based does not change as a result of IBOR reform.
  • In assessing whether the hedge is expected to be highly effective on a forward-looking basis the group has assumed that the GBP LIBOR interest rate on which the cash flows of the hedged debt and the interest rate swap that hedges it are based is not altered by LIBOR reform.
  • The group has not recycled the cash flow hedge reserve relating to the period after the reforms are expected to take effect.
Assumptions made

In calculating the change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk of floating-rate debt, the group has made the following assumptions that reflect its current expectations:

  • The floating-rate debt will move to SONIA during 2022 and the spread will be similar to the spread included in the interest rate swap used as the hedging instrument.
  • No other changes to the terms of the floating-rate debt are anticipated.
  • The group has incorporated the uncertainty over when the floating-rate debt will move to SONIA, the resulting adjustment to the spread, and the other aspects of the reform that have not yet been finalised by adding an additional spread to the discount rate used in the calculation. [IFRS 7.24H(d)]

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

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IFRS 15 Revenue Disclosures Examples

IFRS 15 Revenue Disclosures Examples

IFRS 15 Revenue Disclosures Examples provides the context of disclosure requirements in IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers and a practical example disclosure note in the financial statements. However, as this publication is a reference tool, no disclosures have been removed based on materiality. Instead, illustrative disclosures for as many common scenarios as possible have been included.

Please note that the amounts disclosed in this publication are purely for illustrative purposes and may not be consistent throughout the example disclosure related party transactions.

Users of the financial statements should be given sufficient information to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. To achieve this, entities must provide qualitative and quantitative information about their contracts with customers, significant judgements made in applying IFRS 15 and any assets recognised from the costs to obtain or fulfil a contract with customers. [IFRS 15.110]

Disaggregation of revenue

[IFRS 15.114, IFRS 15.B87-B89]

Entities must disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into categories that depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors. It will depend on the specific circumstances of each entity as to how much detail is disclosed. The Reporting entity Plc has determined that a disaggregation of revenue using existing segments and the timing of the transfer of goods or services (at a point in time vs over time) is adequate for its circumstances. However, this is a judgement and will not necessarily be appropriate for other entities.

Other categories that could be used as basis for disaggregation include:IFRS 15 Revenue Disclosures Examples

  1. type of good or service (eg major product lines)
  2. geographical regions
  3. market or type of customer
  4. type of contract (eg fixed price vs time-and-materials contracts)
  5. contract duration (short-term vs long-term contracts), or
  6. sales channels (directly to customers vs wholesale).

When selecting categories for the disaggregation of revenue entities should also consider how their revenue is presented for other purposes, eg in earnings releases, annual reports or investor presentations and what information is regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision makers. [IFRS 15.B88]

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Best complete read IAS 24 Disclosure Related party transactions

– Learn how to do it –

Disclosure Related party transactions provides a summary of IFRS reporting requirements regarding IAS 24 Related party transactions and a possible disclosure schedule. However, as this publication is a reference tool, no disclosures have been removed based on materiality. Instead, illustrative disclosures for as many common scenarios as possible have been included. Please note that the amounts disclosed in this publication are purely for illustrative purposes and may not be consistent throughout the example disclosure related party transactions.

Presentation

All of the related party information required by IAS 24 that is relevant to the Reporting entity Plc has been presented, or referred to, in one note. This is considered to be a convenient and desirable method of presentation, but there is no requirement to present the information in this manner. Compliance with the standard could also be achieved by disclosing the information in relevant notes throughout the financial statements.

Materiality

The disclosures required by IAS 24 apply to the financial statements when the information is material. According to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, Disclosure Related party transactionsmateriality depends on the size and nature of an item. It may be necessary to treat an item or a group of items as material because of their nature, even if they would not be judged material on the basis of the amounts involved. This may apply when transactions occur between an entity and parties who have a fiduciary responsibility in relation to that entity, such as those transactions between the entity and its key management personnel. [IAS1.7]

Key management personnel compensation

While the disclosures under paragraph 17 of IAS 24 are subject to materiality, this must be determined based on both quantitative and qualitative factors. In general, it will not be appropriate to omit the aggregate compensation disclosures based on materiality. Whether it will be possible to satisfy the disclosure by reference to another document, such as a remuneration report, will depend on local regulation. IAS 24 itself does not specifically permit such cross-referencing.

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Better Communication in Financial Reporting

Better Communication in Financial Reporting

Better Communication in Financial Reporting is an IFRS.org initiative to focus financial reporting on users. There is a general view that financial reports have become too complex and difficult to read and that financial reporting tends to focus more on compliance than communication. See also narrative reporting as a discussion on alternative ways of reporting.

At the same time, users’ tolerance for sifting through information to find what they need continues to decline.

This has implications for the reputation of companies who fail to keep pace. A global study confirmed this trend, with the majority of analysts stating that the quality of reporting directly influenced their opinion of the quality of management.

To demonstrate what companies could do to make their financial report more relevant, there are several suggestions to ‘streamline’ the financial statements to reflect some of the best practices that have been emerging globally over the past few years. In particular:

  • Information is organized to clearly tell the story of financial performance and make critical information more prominent and easier to find.
  • Additional information is included where it is important for an understanding of the performance of the company. For example, we have included a summary of significant transactions and events as the first note to the financial statements even though this is not a required disclosure.

Improving disclosure effectiveness

Terms such as ’disclosure overload’ and ‘cutting the clutter’, and more precisely ‘disclosure effectiveness’, describe a problem in financial reporting that has become a priority issue for the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB or Board), local standard setters, and regulatory bodies. The growth and complexity of financial statement disclosure is also drawing significant attention from financial statement preparers, and more importantly, the users of financial statements.

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What happened in the reporting period

What happened in the reporting period

There is no requirement to disclose a summary of significant events and transactions that have affected the company’s financial position and performance during the period under review (or simply what happened in the reporting period). However, information such as this could help readers understand the entity’s performance and any changes to the entity’s financial position during the year and make it easier finding the relevant information. However, information such as this could also be provided in the (unaudited) operating and financial review rather than the (audited) notes to the financial statements.

Covid-19
At the time of writing, the biggest impact on the financial statements of entities all around the world is related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most entities will be affected by this in one form or another and should discuss the impact prominently in their financial statements. However, as the events are still unfolding, this publication is not providing any illustrative examples or guidance. See how to account for Covid-19 to get an up-to-date discussion.

Going concern disclosures [IAS1.25]
When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Financial statements shall be prepared on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so.

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IFRS 9 Best long-read SPPI Test

The SPPI Test

If an asset is in a hold-to-collect or hold-to-collect or sell business model, an entity assesses whether the cash flows from the financial asset meet the ‘solely payments of principal and interest’ (SPPI Test) benchmark – i.e. whether the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise, on specified dates, to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest.

  • Principal’ is the fair value of the financial asset on initial recognition. The principal may change over time – e.g. if there are repayments of principal.
  • Interest’ is consideration for the time value of money and credit risk. Interest can also include consideration for other basic lending risks and costs, and a profit margin.

A financial asset that does not meet the SPPI Test is always measured at FVPL, unless it is a non-trading equity instrument and the entity makes an irrevocable election to measure it at FVOCI. Here is the decision tree to put the narrative in context:

SPPI Test

Contractual cash flows that meet the SPPI Test are consistent with a basic lending arrangement in the banking industry.

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