Disclosures Critical estimates judgements and errors in IAS 8

Critical estimates judgements and errors

The preparation of financial statements requires the use of accounting estimates which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the group’s accounting policies. (IAS 1.122, IAS 1.125)

This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be wrong. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in other notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

In addition, this note also explains where there have been actual adjustments this year as a result of an error and ofCritical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors  Critical estimates judgements and errors changes to previous estimates.

[Entities with operations in the UK, or that are doing a significant amount of business with the UK, should consider the extent to which additional disclosures are necessary to explain the impact of Brexit-related risks on their financial statements arising from the UK’s Brexit decision, see below.]

(a) Significant estimates and judgements

The areas involving significant estimates or judgements are disclosed in other areas of the notes to facilitate a complete overview of each IFRS subject/Note disclosure. These significant estimates or judgements are:

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated. They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the entity and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

11(b) Correction of material error in calculating depreciation

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Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Employee benefits accounting policies

Employee benefits accounting policies

This is a separated part of the example accounting policies, it is separated because of the size of this note and the specific nature of employee benefits.

Example accounting policies – Introduction

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. Here is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, below a comprehensive example is provided, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.

Employee benefits Guidance

Presentation and measurement of annual leave obligations

RePort Plc has presented its obligation for accrued annual leave within current employee benefit obligations. However, it may be equally appropriate to present these amounts either as provisions (if the timing and/or amount of the future payments is uncertain, such that they satisfy the definition of ‘provision’ in IAS 37) or as other payables.

For measurement purposes, we have assumed that RePort Plc has both annual leave obligations that are classified as Employee benefits accounting policiesshort-term benefits and those that are classified as other long-term benefits under the principles in IAS 19. The appropriate treatment will depend on the individual facts and circumstances and the employment regulations in the respective countries.(IAS19(8),(BC16)-(BC21))

To be classified and measured as short-term benefits, the obligations must be expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the annual reporting period in which the employee has rendered the related services. The IASB has clarified that this must be assessed for the annual leave obligation as a whole and not on an employee-by-employee basis.

Share-based payments – expense recognition and grant date

Share-based payment expenses should be recognised over the period during which the employees provide the relevant services. This period may commence prior to the grant date. In this situation, the entity estimates the grant date fair value of the equity instruments for the purposes of recognising the services received during the period between service commencement date and grant date.(IFRS2(IG4))

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Disclosure equity

Disclosure equity

Get the requirements for properly disclosing equity as the owners’ balance of assets less liabilities to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards.

First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.

Disclosure equity guidance

Share premium

IAS 1 requires disclosure of the par RePort of shares (if any), but does not prescribe a particular form of presentation for the share premium. RePorting Co. is disclosing the share premium in the notes. However, local company laws may have specific rules. For example, they may require separate presentation in the balance sheet. [IAS 1.79(a)]

Treasury shares

IAS 32 states that treasury shares must be deducted from equity and that no gain or loss shall be recognised on the Disclosure equitypurchase, sale, issue or cancellation of such shares. However, the standard does not specify where in equity the treasury shares should be presented. RePorting Co. has elected to present the shares in ‘other equity’, but they may also be disclosed as a separate line item in the balance sheet, deducted from retained earnings or presented in a specific reserve. Depending on local company law, the company may have the right to resell the treasury shares. [IAS 32.33]

Other reserves

An entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, for each accumulated balance of each class of other comprehensive income a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period, separately disclosing each item of other comprehensive income and transactions with owners. See also commentary paragraphs 2 and 3 to the statement of changes in equity. [IAS 1.106(d)]

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The real meaning of Integrated reporting

The real meaning of integrated reporting

Integrated reporting is more than only aimed at informing interested stakeholders about performance achieved against targets, the vision and strategy adopted to serve the stakeholders’ interests, and other factors that can influence business performance in future.

Clearly regulations require companies to exercise transparency. However, a more fundamental reason for reporting lies in accountability: a company needs to account for the impact it has on the stakeholders it relates to. Not exercising such transparency would impose serious risks, including high financing costs to compensate for a lack of transparency or governance or, ultimately, losing the license to operate. By contrast, a transparent approach would not only improve reputation, but also would bind stakeholders such as employees to the company’s objectives.

The reason for including environmental and social factors in reporting

In today’s world companies play a significant role in shaping the future of society. Awareness of this has risen significantly over the last decades, resulting in changed attitudes towards the role business is expected to play.

It also resulted in changes in the views of business leaders about the role they want to play.

Business these days is seen more than ever as the agent of a wide group of stakeholders. Unlike the old paradigm that ‘the business of business is business’, companies accept wider accountability in current times towards the stakeholders whose interests they impact – no longer can companies focus only on the interests of those with a financial interest.

This wider accountability implies that companies have to fulfil the (information) needs of those who provide them with integrated reportingother economic resources such as labour, space, air or natural resources and those who enter into transactions with the organization such as customers. Therefore a company’s current performance and future ability to continue operations and achieve business growth needs to be evaluated on the basis of a comprehensive set of factors that influence these.

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IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage – A Burgeoning Industry

IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage – A Burgeoning Industry

Batteries have been around a long time, and have evolved in various forms through history, but today they are looking to play an imperative role in the energy transition and towards a low carbon economy.

Total investments in battery storage production are projected to exceed USD150 billion by 2023, which corresponds to USD20 for every person on the planet. Over the past decade battery prices have declined 83%, which is making Electrical Vehicles (EVs) and energy storage commercially viable for the first time in history.

What is important in IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage?

Research and Development

Costs associated with research are recognized as an expense as incurred. Costs that are identifiable, controllable and directly attributable to development projects are recognized as intangible asset when the following criteria are met:

  • It is technically feasible to complete the development project so that it will be available for use;
  • Management intends to complete the development project for its own use or selling;
  • There is an ability to use or sell the development project;
  • It can be demonstrated how the development project will generate probable future economic benefits;
  • Adequate technical, financial resources and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the development project are available; and
  • The expenditure attributable to the development project during its development can be reliably measured.

Generally, internally generated development projects have the following stages; formulation and selection of a project, IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storage IFRS Reporting for Battery Storageverification of idea and technology, development and testing, decision of commercialization, test of final application. Expenditures can be capitalized as intangible assets only after the decision of commercialization. Expenditures incurred in other stages are recognized as expenses on the research phase.

Internally generated development projects in the Life Sciences business have the following stages; formulation of potential candidates, pre-clinical research, clinical researches such as phase 1, 2 and 3 trials, approval of regulatory body and new product launch.

Expenditures incurred from new drug development project are recognized as expensed on the research phase. However, expenditures incurred during clinical phase 1~3 trials from development projects for generic drugs or bio-similars are recognized as intangible assets depending on the nature of the products, Expenditures incurred from technology license agreement with the third parties are recognized as intangible assets.

Development costs previously recognized as an expense are not recognized as an asset in a subsequent period. Capitalized development costs that are recognized as intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives when the assets are available for use and are tested for impairment.

Intangible assets (other than goodwill)

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Supplier finance arrangements

Supplier finance arrangements

A purchaser of goods or services may enter into a variety of arrangements to fund its payables to the supplier. For example, a bank pays the supplier directly, with the purchaser then reimbursing the bank at a later date.

After entering into a supplier finance arrangement, careful consideration is required to determine whether the financial liability should be presented as a trade payable or whether it should be presented as part of borrowings. This could impact key performance ratios and influence users’ understanding of the purchaser’s financial position, debt and cash flows.

If presentation as a trade payable is no longer appropriate, the classification of the associated cash outflows in the statement of cash flows will also change to reflect a financing cash outflow.

The appropriate presentation of supplier finance arrangements in the financial statements will require significant judgement based on the facts and circumstances for each arrangement. Where the arrangements are material, it is important that additional disclosures are provided to explain the judgements and accounting policy applied.

What are supplier finance arrangements?

An entity that buys goods and services on credit (the ‘purchaser’) may enter into arrangements with a bank whereby the bank agrees to make a payment to the supplier of the goods and service (‘the supplier’) and the purchaser makes a payment to the bank.

Such arrangements have various names including ‘supplier finance’, ‘supply chain finance’, ‘reverse factoring’, ‘payables service agreements’, ‘trade finance’ and ‘vendor financing’ (for the purpose of this document the arrangements are collectively referred to as supplier finance).

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Advertising and promotional costs

Advertising and promotional costs

The purpose of this narrative is to provide guidance when accounting for expenditure on advertising and promotional activities, including:

  • promotional catalogues and brochures;
  • samples; and
  • media advertising.

Promotional catalogues and brochures

Catalogues that are distributed free of charge to prospective customers and describe the entity’s products and services are not inventory or property, plant and equipment. Instead catalogues are considered to be a form of advertising and promotional material because their primary objective is to advertise. Therefore, the cost of catalogues is recognised as an expense when the entity received or otherwise has the right to access, the catalogues. A prepayment (asset) can be recognised in the statement of financial position only for payments made in advance of the receipt of the catalogues.

Advertising and promotional costs

Samples

For advertising and promotional purposes, some entities may manufacture samples (or specimen) that they intend to hand out free of charge – e.g. beauty products. The costs of manufacturing such samples are expensed as they are incurred; they are not recognised as inventory. [IAS 38.69–70]

Other entities may buy such specimen that they intend to hand out free of charge. The costs of purchasing those samples are expensed when the entity receives, or otherwise has the right to access, the samples; they are not recognised as inventory. A prepayment (asset) for such specimen can be recognised in the statement of financial position only for payments made in advance of the receipt of the specimen. However, if a producer sells products to a retailer and the retailer gives samples to customers free of charge, then the specimen would be treated as inventory of the producer. [IAS 38.69–70]

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Equity – 2 understand it all at best

Equity

There are, at least, two ways to discuss equity:

  • Equity is the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities, or
  • An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.

But also:

1. Equity the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities

1. Statement of Financial Position

Assets

Equity and liabilities

1. Non-current assets

2. Current assets

Help

Help

A – TOTAL ASSETS [1 + 2] = B

3. Non-current liabilities (including Provisions)

4. Current liabilities (including Provisions)

5. Equity [1 + 2 -/- 3 -/- 4]

Help

B – TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES [3 + 4 + 5] = A

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Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

The guidance for this disclosure example is provided here.

8 Non-financial assets and liabilities

This note provides information about the group’s non-financial assets and liabilities, including:

  • specific information about each type of non-financial asset and non-financial liability
    • property, plant and equipment (note 8(a))
    • leases (note 8(b))
    • investment properties (note 8(c))
    • intangible assets (note 8(d))
    • deferred tax balances (note 8(e))
    • inventories (note 8(f))
    • other assets, including assets classified as held for sale (note 8(g))
    • employee benefit obligations (note 8(h))
    • provisions (note 8(i))
  • accounting policies
  • information about determining the fair value of the assets and liabilities, including judgements and estimation uncertainty involved (note 8(j)).

8(a) Property, plant and equipment

Amounts in CU’000

Freehold land

Buildings

Furniture, fittings and equipment

Machinery and vehicles

Assets under construction

Total

At 1 January 2019

Cost or fair value

11,350

28,050

27,510

70,860

137,770

Accumulated depreciation

-7,600

-37,025

-44,625

Net carrying amount

11,350

28,050

19,910

33,835

93,145

Movements in 2019

Exchange differences

-43

-150

-193

Revaluation surplus

2,700

3,140

5,840

Additions

2,874

1,490

2,940

4,198

3,100

14,602

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-424

-525

-2,215

3,164

Depreciation charge

-1,540

-2,030

-4,580

8,150

Closing net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

At 31 December 2019

Cost or fair value

16,500

31,140

29,882

72,693

3,100

153,315

Accumulated depreciation

-9,630

-41,605

-51,235

Net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

Movements in 2020

Exchange differences

-230

-570

-800

Revaluation surplus

3,320

3,923

7,243

Acquisition of subsidiary

800

3,400

1,890

5,720

11,810

Additions

2,500

2,682

5,313

11,972

3,450

25,917

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-550

-5,985

-1,680

-8,215

Transfers

950

2,150

-3,100

Depreciation charge

-1,750

-2,340

-4,380

-8,470

Impairment loss (ii)

-465

-30

-180

-675

Closing net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

At 31 December 2020

Cost or fair value

22,570

38,930

31,790

90,285

3,450

187,025

Accumulated depreciation

-11,970

-46,165

-58,135

Net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

(i) Non-current assets pledged as security

Refer to note 24 for information on non-current assets pledged as security by the group.

(ii) Impairment loss and compensation

The impairment loss relates to assets that were damaged by a fire – refer to note 4(b) for details. The whole amount was recognised as administrative expense in profit or loss, as there was no amount included in the asset revaluation surplus relating to the relevant assets. [IAS 36.130(a)]

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