Category 8 Upstream Leased Assets – The best calculation guidance

Category 8 Upstream Leased Assets

Category description – Category 8 Upstream Leased Assets includes emissions from the operation of assets that are leased by the reporting company in the reporting year and not already included in the reporting company’s scope 1 or scope 2 inventories. This category is applicable only to companies that operate leased assets (i.e., lessees). For companies that own and lease assets to others (i.e., lessors), see category 13 (Downstream leased assets).

Leased assets may be included in a company’s scope 1 or scope 2 inventory depending on the type of lease and the consolidation approach the company uses to define its organizational boundaries (see section 5.2 of the Scope 3 Standard).

If the reporting company leases an asset for only part of the reporting year, it should account for emissions for the portion of the year that the asset was leased. A reporting company’s scope 3 emissions from upstream leased assets include the scope 1 and scope 2 emissions of lessors (depending on the lessor’s consolidation approach).

See Appendix A of the Scope 3 Standard for more information on accounting for emissions from leased assets.

Category 8 Upstream Leased Assets – Calculating emissions from leased assets

Figure 8.1 (below) shows a decision tree for selecting a calculation method for emissions from upstream leased assets.

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Emissions over Time – The 1 Best read

Emissions over Time

The GHG Protocol is designed to enable reporting entities to track and report consistent and comparable emissions data over time. The first step to tracking emissions over time is the establishment of a base year. A base year is a benchmark against which subsequent emissions can be compared to create meaningful comparisons over time and may be used for setting GHG reduction targets.

To comply with the GHG Protocol principles of relevance and consistency, a reporting entity is required to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions. A base year is only required for Scope 3 emissions when Scope 3 performance is tracked or a Scope 3 reduction target has been set. That is the case whether the entity is reporting under the Corporate Standard or the Scope 3 Standard (see below How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?).

How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?

An entity reporting under the Corporate Standard is not required to disclose Scope 3 emissions. As a result, there are three options under the GHG Protocol for reporting Scope 3 emissions, as described in the following table, which is based on Table 1.1 in the Scope 3 Standard:

Option

Description

Applicable GHG criteria

1

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and either (1) no Scope 3 emissions or (2) Scope 3 emissions from activities that are not aligned with any of the prescribed Scope 3 categories (the latter is very rare).

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

2

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and some, but not all, relevant and material Scope 3 GHG emissions in accordance with the Scope 3 calculation guidance but not with the Scope 3 Standard.

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

  • Scope 3 Guidance

3

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and all relevant and material categories of Scope 3 GHG emissions

Consider this!

The GHG Protocol encourages reporting entities to begin reporting GHG emissions information and improve the completeness and precision of that information over time.

While the GHG Protocol requires a company to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, a reporting entity that recently started to report GHG emissions information and has not established an emissions reduction target may choose not to set a base year until the precision and completeness of their emissions inventory have improved.

In this situation, the reporting entity should disclose that a base year has not yet been established and the reason for not establishing a base year.

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The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2 – Best read

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

On 26 June 2023 the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) released its first two International Sustainability Disclosure Standards (IFRS SDS or the Standards) that become effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2024. Together they mark the start of a new era of requiring companies to make sustainability-related disclosures.

The ISSB was launched by the IFRS Foundation at COP26 with the aim of improving the consistency and quality of sustainability reporting across the globe, by matching the importance of sustainability reporting with the current regulations around financial reporting. To reinforce this message, the ISSB sits alongside the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and is overseen by the trustees of the IFRS Foundation and the Monitoring board.

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

The ISSB brings together the Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) and the Value Reporting Foundation (VRF), the name behind the Integrated Reporting Framework and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Standards.

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Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Borrowing costs – Q&A IAS 23

Q&A Borrowing costs

Q&A Borrowing costs is a questions and answers lesson type of narrative following the captions of this rather simple IFRS Standard.

  1. General scope and definitions
  2. Borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation
  3. Foreign exchange differences
  4. Cessation of capitalisation
  5. Interaction IAS 23 and IFRS 15 Construction contracts with customers

General scope and definitions

1.1 A qualifying asset is an asset that ‘necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale’. Is there any bright line for determining the ‘substantial period of time’?

No. IAS 23 does not define ‘substantial period of time’. Management exercises judgement when determining which assets are qualifying assets, taking into account, among other factors, the nature of the asset. An asset that normally takes more than a year to be ready for use will usually be a qualifying asset. Once management chooses the criteria and type of assets, it applies this consistently to those types of asset.

Management discloses in the notes to the financial statements, when relevant, how the assessment was performed, which criteria were considered and which types of assets are subject to capitalisation of borrowing costs.

1.2 The IASB has amended the list of costs that can be included in borrowing costs, as part of its 2008 minor improvement project. Will this change anything in practice?

The amendment eliminates inconsistencies between interest expense as calculated under IAS 23 and IFRS 9. IAS 23 refers to the effective interest rate method as described in IFRS 9. The calculation includes fees, transaction costs and amortisation of discounts or premiums relating to borrowings. These components were already included in IAS 23. However, IAS 23 also referred to ‘ancillary costs’ and did not define this term.

This could have resulted in a different calculation of interest expense than under IFRS 9. No significant impact is expected from this change. Alignment of the definitions means that management only uses one method to calculate interest expense.

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Acquisitions and mergers as per IFRS 3

Acquisitions and mergers

Acquisitions and mergers are becoming more and more common as entities aim to achieve their growth objectives. IFRS 3 ‘Business Combinations’ contains the requirements for these transactions, which are challenging in practice.

This narrative sets out how an entity should determine if the transaction is a business combination, and whether it is within the scope of IFRS 3.

Identifying a business combination

IFRS 3 refers to a ‘business combination’ rather than more commonly used phrases such as takeover, acquisition or Acquisitions and mergersmerger because the objective is to encompass all the transactions in which an acquirer obtains control over an acquiree no matter how the transaction is structured. A business combination is defined as a transaction or other event in which an acquirer (an investor entity) obtains control of one or more businesses.

An entity’s purchase of a controlling interest in another unrelated operating entity will usually be a business combination (see case below).

Case – Straightforward business combination

Entity T is a clothing manufacturer and has traded for a number of years. Entity T is deemed to be a business.

On 1 January 2020, Entity A pays CU 2,000 to acquire 100% of the ordinary voting shares of Entity T. No other type of shares has been issued by Entity T. On the same day, the three main executive directors of Entity A take on the same roles in Entity T.

Consider this…..

Entity A obtains control on 1 January 2020 by acquiring 100% of the voting rights. As Entity T is a business, this is a business combination in accordance with IFRS 3.

However, a business combination may be structured, and an entity may obtain control of that structure, in a variety of ways.

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Transfer pricing – IAS 12 Best complete read

Transfer pricing
 for
transactions between related parties

A transfer price is the price charged between related parties (e.g., a parent company and its controlled foreign corporation) in an inter-company transaction. Although inter-company transactions are eliminated when consolidating the financial results of controlled foreign corporations and their domestic parents, for preparation of individual tax returns each entity (or a tax consolidation unit of more than one entity in the group in one and the same tax jurisdiction) prepares stand-alone (or a tax consolidation unit) tax returns.

See also:

IAS 24 Related parties narrative IFRS 15 Revenue narrative IAS 12 Income tax narrative

Transfer prices directly affect the allocation of group-wide taxable income across national tax jurisdictions. Hence, a group’s transfer-pricing policies can directly affect its after-tax income to the extent that tax rates differ across national jurisdictions.

Arm’s length transaction principle

Most OECD countries rely upon the OECD TP Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, that were originally released in 1995 and subsequently updated in 2017 (OECD TP Guidelines). The OECD TP Guidelines reaffirmed the OECD’s commitment to the arm’s length transaction principle.

In fact, the arm’s length transaction principle is considered “the closest approximation of the workings of the open market in cases where goods and services are transferred between associated enterprises.” The arm’s length principle implies that transfer prices between related parties should be set as though the entities were operating at arm’s length (i.e. were independent enterprises).

The application of the arm’s length transaction principle is generally based on a comparison of all the relevant conditions in a controlled transaction with the conditions in an uncontrolled transaction (i.e. a transaction between independent enterprises).

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Equity – 2 understand it all at best

Equity

There are, at least, two ways to discuss equity:

  • Equity is the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities, or
  • An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.

But also:

1. Equity the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities

1. Statement of Financial Position

Assets

Equity and liabilities

1. Non-current assets

2. Current assets

Help

Help

A – TOTAL ASSETS [1 + 2] = B

3. Non-current liabilities (including Provisions)

4. Current liabilities (including Provisions)

5. Equity [1 + 2 -/- 3 -/- 4]

Help

B – TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES [3 + 4 + 5] = A

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Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

The guidance for this disclosure example is provided here.

8 Non-financial assets and liabilities

This note provides information about the group’s non-financial assets and liabilities, including:

8(a) Property, plant and equipment

Amounts in CU’000

Freehold land

Buildings

Furniture, fittings and equipment

Machinery and vehicles

Assets under construction

Total

At 1 January 2019

Cost or fair value

11,350

28,050

27,510

70,860

137,770

Accumulated depreciation

-7,600

-37,025

-44,625

Net carrying amount

11,350

28,050

19,910

33,835

93,145

Movements in 2019

Exchange differences

-43

-150

-193

Revaluation surplus

2,700

3,140

5,840

Additions

2,874

1,490

2,940

4,198

3,100

14,602

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-424

-525

-2,215

3,164

Depreciation charge

-1,540

-2,030

-4,580

8,150

Closing net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

At 31 December 2019

Cost or fair value

16,500

31,140

29,882

72,693

3,100

153,315

Accumulated depreciation

-9,630

-41,605

-51,235

Net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

Movements in 2020

Exchange differences

-230

-570

-800

Revaluation surplus

3,320

3,923

7,243

Acquisition of subsidiary

800

3,400

1,890

5,720

11,810

Additions

2,500

2,682

5,313

11,972

3,450

25,917

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-550

-5,985

-1,680

-8,215

Transfers

950

2,150

-3,100

Depreciation charge

-1,750

-2,340

-4,380

-8,470

Impairment loss (ii)

-465

-30

-180

-675

Closing net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

At 31 December 2020

Cost or fair value

22,570

38,930

31,790

90,285

3,450

187,025

Accumulated depreciation

-11,970

-46,165

-58,135

Net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

(i) Non-current assets pledged as security

Refer to note 24 for information on non-current assets pledged as security by the group.

(ii) Impairment loss and compensation

The impairment loss relates to assets that were damaged by a fire – refer to note 4(b) for details. The whole amount was recognised as administrative expense in profit or loss, as there was no amount included in the asset revaluation surplus relating to the relevant assets. [IAS 36.130(a)]

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EPS in IAS 33

EPS (Earnings per share)

EPS measures are intended to represent the income earned (or loss incurred) by each ordinary share during a reporting period and therefore provide an indicator of reported performance for the period.

The EPS measure is also widely used by users of financial statements as part of the price-earnings ratio, which is calculated by dividing the price of an ordinary share by its EPS amount. This ratio is therefore an indicator of how many times (years) the earnings would have to be repeated to be equal to the share price of the entity.

Users of financial statements also use the EPS measure as part of the dividend cover calculation. This measure is calculated by dividing the EPS amount for a period by the dividend per share for that period. It therefore provides an indication of how many times the earnings cover the distribution being made to the ordinary shareholders.

Basic EPS and diluted EPS are presented by entities whose ordinary shares or potential ordinary shares (POSs) are traded in a public market or that file, or are in the process of filing, their financial statements for the purpose of issuing any class of ordinary shares in a public market. (IAS 33.2)

Basic EPS and diluted EPS for both continuing and total operations are presented in the statement of profit or loss and OCI, with equal prominence, for each class of ordinary shares that has a differing right to share in the profit or loss for the period. (IAS 33.66-67A)

Separate EPS information is disclosed for discontinued operations, either in the statement of profit or loss and OCI or in the notes to the financial statements. (IAS 33.66-68A)

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. (IAS 33.10)

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