Royalty Avoidance Approach

One method to determine the market value of Intellectual Property assets like patents, trademarks, and copyrights is to use the royalty avoidance approach (also known as Relief from royalty or Royalty Relief). This approach determines the value of Intellectual Property assets by estimating what it would cost the business if it had to purchase the Intellectual Property (IP) it uses from an outsider.

This approach requires the valuator to (1) project future sales of the products that use the technology, (2) determine an appropriate reasonable royalty rate, and (3) determine either a present value factor or an appropriate discount rate. The result is the present value of the Intellectual Property to the company. See the following example of the valuation Read more

Calculations IFRS 16 Leases

Leases – Fixed payments depending on an index and rent-free period

This case is rather simple, fixed payments depending on an index and rent-free period. Here are only included the journal entries to be made at the inception of the lease contract.

This contract comprises a lease contract for the lease of office space, archive space, inside garage space and outside parking places. The contract consist of special and general conditions. The special conditions prevail the general conditions.

The lease contract has a lease term of 12 consecutive years (144 months), starting date is 1 March 2015, ending date is 28 February 2027. Tacit renewal of the agreement for a definite period of time, such as with six months Read more

Key differences between GM and VFA Insurance

The Variable Fee Approach (‘VFA’) is a modification of the General Model. The General Model is applied to insurance contracts without participation features or to insurance contracts with participation features that fail the Variable fee scope test. Thus, the VFA is applied to insurance contracts with direct participation features that contain the following conditions at initial recognition:

  1. the contractual terms specify that the policyholder participates in a share of a clearly identified pool of underlying items;
  2. the entity expects to pay to the policyholder an amount equal to a substantial share of the returns from the underlying items; and
  3. a substantial proportion of the cash flows the entity expects to pay to the policyholder should be expected to vary with
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Disclosure requirements IFRS 4 and IFRS 17

Explanation of recognized amounts from IFRS 4 to IFRS 17

1 Introduction Disclosure requirements IFRS 4 and IFRS 17

[IFRS 17 (98), IFRS 17 (93)-(96)]

IFRS 4 requires an entity to disclose information that identifies and explains the amounts in its financial statements arising from insurance contracts. In order to comply with this objective, IFRS 4 outlines what should be disclosed regarding reconciliations, policies, methods and processes but provides limited guidance on how these disclosure requirements should be met.

IFRS 17 requirements are much more extensive. It requires the entity to provide specific reconciliations showing how the net carrying amounts of insurance contracts changed during the period as a result of changes in cash flows and income Read more

Disclosure of significant judgments for insurances

Consistent with IAS 1, IFRS 17 requires disclosure of significant judgment and changes in judgment that an entity makes in applying the standard [IFRS 17 93 and IAS 1 122]. Specifically, an entity must disclose the inputs, assumptions and estimation techniques it has used, including [IFRS 17 117]:

  • Methods to measure insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 and processes to estimate the inputs to those methods. Unless impracticable, an entity must also provide quantitative information about those inputs.
  • Any changes in methods and processes for estimating inputs used to measure contracts, the reason for each change, and the type of contracts affected.
  • to the extent not covered above, the approach used:
    • To distinguish changes
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