Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

7. Appendix E shows what the disclosures could look like if an entity is affected the interest rate benchmark reform and had to change its accounting policies to reflect the amendments made to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments or its predecessor, IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

Early adoption of accounting standards

8. RePort Co. PLC does not generally adopt any standards or amendments to standards early, unless the amendments are only clarifying existing practice and do not introduce any major changes (eg the amendments made by the Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2018-2020 Cycle). The impact of standards and interpretations that have not been early adopted is disclosed in note 25(a)(iv). For a listing of standards and interpretations that were on issue as at 31 May 2020 but not yet mandatory refer to Appendix D.

Entities that are lessees and have received COVID-19-related rent concessions should disclose that they have adopted Example accounting policiesthe amendments made to IFRS 16 in May 2020 early (eg for their financial year ending 31 December 2020) if they want to apply the practical expedient permitted by these amendments.

These entities will also need to disclose the fact that they have applied the practical expedient, whether it has been applied to all qualifying rent concessions or if not, information about the nature of the contracts to which it has been applied, and the amount recognised in profit or loss arising from the rent concessions. [IFRS 16.60A]

Standards and interpretations issued but not yet effective

9. Entities must explain if there are any accounting standards and interpretations which are not yet applied but are expected to have a material effect on the entity in the current period and on foreseeable future transactions (eg IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts, where relevant). Where a pronouncement introduces a new accounting option that was not previously available, the entity should explain whether and/or how it expects to use the option in the future. [IAS 8.30]

10. In general, where the expected impact is material, entities should make these disclosures even if the new accounting pronouncement is issued after the balance sheet date but before the date of authorisation of the financial statements.

11. The illustrative accounting policy note on page 179 assumes that none of the standards on issue at the time of writing will have a material impact on RePort Co. PLC. However, this will not apply to all entities alike and entities will need to provide appropriate disclosures where necessary. For a listing of standards and interpretations that were on issue as at 31 May 2020 but not yet mandatory refer to Appendix D.

For major new standards such as IFRS 17, regulators will generally expect to see entity-specific disclosures about the entity’s transition approach and ultimately also a quantification of the estimated impact of these standards, if the standards are relevant to the entity.

12. Insurance contracts are defined as contracts ‘under which one party (the issuer) accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects the policyholder’. Entities should be aware that this could also include certain contracts entered into by entities that are not insurers, such as fixed-fee for service contracts. [IFRS 17.A Definitions]

Financial instruments

Disclosure of the measurement bases of financial instruments may include: [IFRS 7.21, IFRS 7.B5]

  1. the nature of financial assets and financial liabilities that have been designated at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL), the criteria for designating them at FVPL and how the entity has satisfied the conditions in IFRS 9 for such designation
  2. whether regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are accounted for at trade date or at settlement date, and
  3. how net gains or net losses on each category of financial instruments are determined (eg whether the net gains or losses on items at FVPL include interest or dividend income).
Presentation of fair value gains and losses on financial assets and derivatives

14. RePort Co. PLC’s accounting policies for financial assets and derivatives (notes 25(o) and (p)) specify where in the statement of comprehensive income (or statement of profit or loss, as applicable) the relevant fair value gains or losses are presented.

However, IFRS 9 does not prescribe the presentation in the statement of comprehensive income. Other ways of presenting the fair value gains and losses may be equally appropriate.

For example, fair value changes on interest rate hedges or the ineffective portion of an interest rate hedge may be presented within other expenses or other gains/(losses) rather than in finance cost.

Employee benefits

Presentation and measurement of annual leave obligations

15. RePort Co. PLC has presented its obligation for accrued annual leave within current employee benefit obligations. However, it may be equally appropriate to present these amounts either as provisions (if the timing and/or amount of the future payments is uncertain, such that they satisfy the definition of ‘provision’ in IAS 37) or as other payables. [IAS 19.8, IAS 19.BC16-BC21]

For measurement purposes, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC has both annual leave obligations that are classified as short-term benefits and those that are classified as other long-term benefits under the principles in IAS 19. The appropriate treatment will depend on the individual facts and circumstances and the employment regulations in the respective countries.

To be classified and measured as short-term benefits, the obligations must be expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the annual reporting period in which the employee has rendered the related services. The IASB has clarified that this must be assessed for the annual leave obligation as a whole and not on an employee-by-employee basis.

Share-based payments – expense recognition and grant date

16. Share-based payment expenses should be recognised over the period during which the employees provide the relevant services. This period may commence prior to the grant date. In this situation, the entity estimates the grant date fair value of the equity instruments for the purposes of recognising the services received during the period between service commencement date and grant date.

Once the grant date has been established, the entity revises the earlier estimate so that the amounts recognised for services received is ultimately based on the grant date fair value of the equity instruments. The deferred shares awarded by RePort Co. PLC are an example where this is the case. They are expensed over three years and two months, being the period to which the bonus relates and the two subsequent years until the deferred shares vest. [IFRS 2.IG4]

Reclassification

17. Where an entity has reclassified comparative amounts because of a change in presentation, it must disclose the nature and reason for the reclassification in the notes. To illustrate this disclosure, we have assumed in this publication that RePort Co. PLC has reclassified its employee obligations in the current year from provisions to a separate line item in the balance sheet. [IAS 1.41]

Other potential disclosures

The following requirements are not illustrated here as they are not applicable to RePorting Co. Plc:

Issue not disclosed

Relevant disclosures or references

Fair value determined using valuation technique – difference on initial recognition [IFRS 7.28, IFRS 9.B5.1.2A]

Disclose (by class of financial instrument) the accounting policy for recognising that difference in profit or loss.

Financial assets and liabilities designated at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL) [IAS 1.117, IFRS 7.B5(a),(aa)]

Disclose the nature of the financial assets or liabilities designated as at FVPL, the criteria for the designation and how the entity has satisfied the conditions for designation. See note 7 commentary paragraph 14 for illustrative disclosures.

Financial reporting in hyper inflationary economies [IAS 29.39]

Disclose the fact that the financial statements and comparatives have been restated, which method was used (historical cost or current cost approach) and information about the identity and the level of the price index.

Example accounting policies

25 Summary of significant accounting policies 1-5,18,19

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements to the extent they have not already been disclosed in the other notes above. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated. The financial statements are for the group consisting of RePort Co. PLC and its subsidiaries. [IAS 1.112(a),(b), IAS 1.51(b)]

25(a) Basis of preparation

[IAS 1.112(a), IAS 1.117]

(i) Compliance with IFRS

The consolidated financial statements of the RePort Co. PLC group have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and interpretations issued by the IFRS Interpretations Committee (IFRS IC) applicable to companies reporting under IFRS. The financial statements comply with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). [IAS 1.16]

(ii) Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

  • certain financial assets and liabilities (including derivative instruments),certain classes of property, plant and equipment and investment property – measured at fair value
  • assets held for sale – measured at fair value less costs to sell, and
  • defined benefit pension plans – plan assets measured at fair value. [IAS 1.117(a)]
(iii) New and amended standards adopted by the group 4-7

The group has applied the following standards and amendments for the first time for their annual reporting period commencing 1 January 2020: [IAS 8.28]

  • Definition of Material – amendments to IAS 1 and IAS 8
  • Definition of a Business – amendments to IFRS 3
  • Interest Rate Benchmark Reform – amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7
  • Revised Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting

The group also elected to adopt the following amendments early: 8

  • Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2018-2020 Cycle.
  • [Where applicable: Covid-19-Related Rent Concessions – amendments to IFRS 16 and Interest Rate Benchmark Reform – amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7]]

The amendments listed above did not have any impact on the amounts recognised in prior periods and are not expected to significantly affect the current or future periods. [See Interest Rate Benchmark reform disclosures.]

(iv) New standards and interpretations not yet adopted 9-12

Certain new accounting standards and interpretations have been published that are not mandatory for 31 December 2020 reporting periods and have not been early adopted by the group. These standards are not expected to have a material impact on the entity in the current or future reporting periods and on foreseeable future transactions. [IAS 8.30]

[Entities that could be expected to be significantly impacted by the adoption of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts should consider whether there is any information that they should provide about the impact in their annual report.] 12

25(b) Principles of consolidation and equity accounting

[IAS 1.119]

This note is provided in a separate section, link here ‘Principles of consolidation and equity accounting‘.

25(c) Segment reporting

[IAS 1.119]

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. [IFRS 8.5, IFRS 8.7]

The board of RePort Co. PLC has appointed a strategic steering committee which assesses the financial performance and position of the group, and makes strategic decisions. The steering committee, which has been identified as being the chief operating decision maker, consists of the chief executive officer, the chief financial officer and the manager for corporate planning.

25(d) Foreign currency translation

[IAS 1.119, IAS 1.120]

(i) Functional and presentation currency

[IAS 1.119]

Items included in the financial statements of each of the group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The consolidated financial statements are presented in Neverland currency units (CU), which is RePort Co. PLC’s functional and presentation currency. [IAS 21.9, IAS 21.17, IAS 21.18, IAS 1.51(d)]

(ii) Transactions and balances

[IAS 1.119]

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions, and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates, are generally recognised in profit or loss.

They are deferred in equity if they relate to qualifying cash flow hedges and qualifying net investment hedges or are attributable to part of the net investment in a foreign operation. [IAS21.21, IAS21.28, IAS21.32, IFRS 9.6.5.11(b), IFRS 9.6.5.13(a)]

Foreign exchange gains and losses that relate to borrowings are presented in the statement of profit or loss, within finance costs. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the statement of profit or loss on a net basis within other gains/(losses).

Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. Translation differences on assets and liabilities carried at fair value are reported as part of the fair value gain or loss.

For example, translation differences on non-monetary assets and liabilities such as equities held at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in profit or loss as part of the fair value gain or loss, and translation differences on non-monetary assets such as equities classified as at fair value through other comprehensive income are recognised in other comprehensive income. [IAS 21.23(c), IAS 21.30]

(iii) Group companies

[IAS 1.119]

The results and financial position of foreign operations (none of which has the currency of a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet
  • income and expenses for each statement of profit or loss and statement of comprehensive income are translated at average exchange rates (unless this is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the dates of the transactions), and
  • all resulting exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income. [IAS 21.39]

On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of any net investment in foreign entities, and of borrowings and other financial instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are recognised in other comprehensive income. When a foreign operation is sold or any borrowings forming part of the net investment are repaid, the associated exchange differences are reclassified to profit or loss, as part of the gain or loss on sale. [IFRS 9.6.5.13]

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation and translated at the closing rate. [IAS 21.47]

25(e) Revenue recognition

[IAS 1.119]

The accounting policies for the group’s revenue from contracts with customers are explained in note 3(c).

25(f) Government grants

[IAS 1.119]

Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the group will comply with all attached conditions. Note 5 provides further information on how the group accounts for government grants. [IAS 20.7, IAS 20.39(a)]

25(g) Income tax

[IAS 1.119, IAS 1.120]

The income tax expense or credit for the period is the tax payable on the current period’s taxable income, based on the applicable income tax rate for each jurisdiction, adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences and to unused tax losses. [IAS 12.46]

The current income tax charge is calculated on the basis of the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period in the countries where the company and its subsidiaries and associates operate and generate taxable income.

Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation and considers whether it is probable that a taxation authority will accept an uncertain tax treatment. The group measures its tax balances either based on the most likely amount or the expected value, depending on which method provides a better prediction of the resolution of the uncertainty. [IAS 12.12, IAS 12.46, IFRIC 23]

Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. However, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if they arise from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred income tax is also not accounted for if it arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that, at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss.

Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realised or the deferred income tax liability is settled. [IAS 12.15, IAS 12.24, IAS 12.47]

The deferred tax liability in relation to investment property that is measured at fair value is determined assuming the property will be recovered entirely through sale. [IAS 12.51C]

Deferred tax assets are recognised only if it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilise those temporary differences and losses. [IAS 12.24, IAS 12.34]

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in foreign operations where the company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future. [IAS 12.39, IAS 12.44]

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset where there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and where the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. [IAS12.71, IAS12.74]

Current and deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively. [IAS 12.61A]

(i) Investment allowances and similar tax incentives

Companies within the group may be entitled to claim special tax deductions for investments in qualifying assets or in relation to qualifying expenditure (eg the Research and Development Tax Incentive regime in Neverland or other investment allowances).

The group accounts for such allowances as tax credits, which means that the allowance reduces income tax payable and current tax expense. A deferred tax asset is recognised for unclaimed tax credits that are carried forward as deferred tax assets.

25(h) Leases

[IAS 1.119]

The group’s leasing policy is described in note 8(b).

25(i) Business combinations

[IAS 1.119, IAS 1.120]

The acquisition method of accounting is used to account for all business combinations, regardless of whether equity instruments or other assets are acquired. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary comprises the:

  • fair values of the assets transferred
  • liabilities incurred to the former owners of the acquired business
  • equity interests issued by the group
  • fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement, and
  • fair value of any pre-existing equity interest in the subsidiary. [IFRS 3.5, IFRS 3.37, IFRS 3.39, IFRS 3.53, IFRS 3.18, IFRS 3.19]

Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are, with limited exceptions, measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. The group recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquired entity on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquired entity’s net identifiable assets.

Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.

The excess of the:

  • consideration transferred,
  • amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquired entity, and
  • acquisition-date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquired entity

over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If those amounts are less than the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the business acquired, the difference is recognised directly in profit or loss as a bargain purchase. [IFRS 3.32, IFRS 3.34]

Where settlement of any part of cash consideration is deferred, the amounts payable in the future are discounted to their present value as at the date of exchange. The discount rate used is the entity’s incremental borrowing rate, being the rate at which a similar borrowing could be obtained from an independent financier under comparable terms and conditions.

Contingent consideration is classified either as equity or a financial liability. Amounts classified as a financial liability are subsequently remeasured to fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss.

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date. Any gains or losses arising from such remeasurement are recognised in profit or loss. [IFRS 3.42]

25(j) Impairment of assets

[IAS 1.119]

Goodwill and intangible assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that they might be impaired. Other assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units).

Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period. [IAS 36.9, IAS 36.10]

25(k) Cash and cash equivalents

[IAS 1.119]

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet. [IAS 7.6, IAS 7.8, IAS 7.46]

25(l) Trade receivables

[IAS 1.119]

Trade receivables are recognised initially at the amount of consideration that is unconditional, unless they contain significant financing components when they are recognised at fair value. They are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less loss allowance. See note 7(a) for further information about the group’s accounting for trade receivables and note 12(c) for a description of the group’s impairment policies. [IFRS 7.21]

25(m) Inventories

[IAS 1.119]

(i) Raw materials and stores, work in progress and finished goods

[IAS 1.119]

Raw materials and stores, work in progress and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost includes the reclassification from equity of any gains or losses on qualifying cash flow hedges relating to purchases of raw material but excludes borrowing costs.

Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory on the basis of weighted average costs. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. [IAS 2.9, IAS 2.10, IAS 2.25, IAS 2.36(a), IFRS 9.6.5.11(d)(i)]

(ii) Land held for resale

[IAS 1.119]

Land held for resale is stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is assigned by specific identification and includes the cost of acquisition, and development and borrowing costs during development. When development is completed, borrowing costs and other holding charges are expensed as incurred. [IAS 2.9, IAS 2.10, IAS 2.23, IAS 2.36(a), IAS 23.8, IAS 23.22]

25(n) Non-current assets (or disposal groups) held for sale and discontinued operations

[IAS 1.119]

Non-current assets (or disposal groups) are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable.

They are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell, except for assets such as deferred tax assets, assets arising from employee benefits, financial assets and investment property that are carried at fair value and contractual rights under insurance contracts, which are specifically exempt from this requirement. [IFRS 5.6, IFRS 5.15]

An impairment loss is recognised for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell. A gain is recognised for any subsequent increases in fair value less costs to sell of an asset (or disposal group), but not in excess of any cumulative impairment loss previously recognised. A gain or loss not previously recognised by the date of the sale of the non-current asset (or disposal group) is recognised at the date of derecognition. [IFRS 5.20-22]

Non-current assets (including those that are part of a disposal group) are not depreciated or amortised while they are classified as held for sale. Interest and other expenses attributable to the liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale continue to be recognised. [IFRS 5.25]

Non-current assets classified as held for sale and the assets of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets in the balance sheet. The liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from other liabilities in the balance sheet. [IFRS 5.38]

A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and that represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations, or is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale. The results of discontinued operations are presented separately in the statement of profit or loss. [IFRS 5.31, IFRS 5.32, IFRS 5.33(a)]

25(o) Investments and other financial assets

(i) Classification

The group classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

  • those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through OCI or through profit or loss), and
  • those to be measured at amortised cost. [IFRS 9.4.1.1]

The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or OCI. For investments in equity instruments that are not held for trading, this will depend on whether the group has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). [IFRS 9.4.1.4, IFRS 9.5.7.1]

The group reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes. [IFRS 9.4.4.1]

(ii) Recognition and derecognition

Regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on trade date, being the date on which the group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or have been transferred and the group has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership. [IFRS 7.21, IFRS 7.B5(c), IFRS 9.3.1.1, IFRS 9.3.2.2, IFRS 9.B3.1.3-B3.1.6]

(iii) Measurement 13,14

At initial recognition, the group measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at FVPL are expensed in profit or loss. [IFRS 9.5.1.1]

Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest. [IFRS 9.4.3.2, IFRS 9.4.3.3]

Debt instruments

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the group’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the group classifies its debt instruments: [IFRS 9.5.2.1]

  • Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows, where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at amortised cost. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition is recognised directly in profit or loss and presented in other gains/(losses) together with foreign exchange gains and losses. Impairment losses are presented as separate line item in the statement of profit or loss. [IFRS 9.4.1.2]
  • FVOCI: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at FVOCI. Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest income and foreign exchange gains and losses, which are recognised in profit or loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognised in other gains/(losses). Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in other gains/(losses), and impairment expenses are presented as separate line item in the statement of profit or loss. [IFRS 9.4.1.1, IFRS 9.4.1.2A, IFRS 9.5.7.10]
  • FVPL: Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVOCI are measured at FVPL. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at FVPL is recognised in profit or loss and presented net within other gains/(losses) in the period in which it arises. [IFRS 9.4.1.1, IFRS 9.4.1.4]

Equity instruments

The group subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the group’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in OCI, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss following the derecognition of the investment. Dividends from such investments continue to be recognised in profit or loss as other income when the group’s right to receive payments is established. [IFRS 9.5.7.5, IFRS 9.5.7.6]

Changes in the fair value of financial assets at FVPL are recognised in other gains/(losses) in the statement of profit or loss as applicable. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value. [IFRS 9.5.7.1]

(iv) Impairment

The group assesses on a forward-looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its debt instruments carried at amortised cost and FVOCI. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.

For trade receivables, the group applies the simplified approach permitted by IFRS 9, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables, see note 12(c) for further details.

25(p) Derivatives and hedging activities

[IAS 1.119, IFRS 7.21]

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into, and they are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The accounting for subsequent changes in fair value depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and, if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The group designates certain derivatives as either:

  • hedges of the fair value of recognised assets or liabilities or a firm commitment (fair value hedges)
  • hedges of a particular risk associated with the cash flows of recognised assets and liabilities and highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges), or
  • hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation (net investment hedges). [IFRS 9.5.1.1, IFRS 9.5.2.1(c), IFRS 9.5.2.3, IFRS 9.6.5.2]

At inception of the hedge relationship, the group documents the economic relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, including whether changes in the cash flows of the hedging instruments are expected to offset changes in the cash flows of hedged items. The group documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking its hedge transactions. [IFRS 9.6.4.1(b)]

The fair values of derivative financial instruments designated in hedge relationships are disclosed in note 7(h). Movements in the hedging reserve in shareholders’ equity are shown in note 9(c). The full fair value of a hedging derivative is classified as a non-current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item is more than 12 months; it is classified as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item is less than 12 months. Trading derivatives are classified as a current asset or liability.

Cash flow hedges that qualify for hedge accounting

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss, within other gains/(losses). [IFRS 9.6.5.11]

Where option contracts are used to hedge forecast transactions, the group designates only the intrinsic value of the options as the hedging instrument. [IFRS 9.6.5.15]

Gains or losses relating to the effective portion of the change in intrinsic value of the options are recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity. The changes in the time value of the options that relate to the hedged item (‘aligned time value’) are recognised within OCI in the costs of hedging reserve within equity. [IFRS 9.6.5.15(c)]

When forward contracts are used to hedge forecast transactions, the group generally designates only the change in fair value of the forward contract related to the spot component as the hedging instrument. Gains or losses relating to the effective portion of the change in the spot component of the forward contracts are recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity.

The change in the forward element of the contract that relates to the hedged item (‘aligned forward element’) is recognised within OCI in the costs of hedging reserve within equity. In some cases, the entity may designate the full change in fair value of the forward contract (including forward points) as the hedging instrument. In such cases, the gains or losses relating to the effective portion of the change in fair value of the entire forward contract are recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity. [IFRS 9.6.5.16]

Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, as follows:

  • Where the hedged item subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset (such as inventory), both the deferred hedging gains and losses and the deferred time value of the option contracts or deferred forward points, if any, are included within the initial cost of the asset. The deferred amounts are ultimately recognised in profit or loss as the hedged item affects profit or loss (for example through cost of sales). [IFRS 9.6.5.15, IFRS 9.6.5.16]
  • The gain or loss relating to the effective portion of the interest rate swaps hedging variable rate borrowings is recognised in profit or loss within finance cost at the same time as the interest expense on the hedged borrowings. [IFRS 9.6.5.11(d)(i)]

When a hedging instrument expires, or is sold or terminated, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative deferred gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs, resulting in the recognition of a non-financial asset such as inventory. When the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging that were reported in equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss. [IFRS 9.6.5.12]

(ii) Net investment hedges

[IAS 1.119]

Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges.

Any gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in reserves in equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss within other gains/(losses). 11 [IFRS 9.6.5.13]

Gains and losses accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss when the foreign operation is partially disposed of or sold.

(iii) Derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting

[IAS 1.119]

Certain derivative instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of any derivative instrument that does not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised immediately in profit or loss and are included in other gains/(losses). 14 [IFRS 9.5.7.1]

25(q) Financial guarantee contracts

[IAS 1.119, IFRS 7.21]

Financial guarantee contracts are recognised as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. [IFRS 9.4.2.1(c)] The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently at the higher of:

  • the amount determined in accordance with the expected credit loss model under IFRS 9 Financial Instruments and
  • the amount initially recognised less, where appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

The fair value of financial guarantees is determined based on the present value of the difference in cash flows between the contractual payments required under the debt instrument and the payments that would be required without the guarantee, or the estimated amount that would be payable to a third party for assuming the obligations.

Where guarantees in relation to loans or other payables of associates are provided for no compensation, the fair values are accounted for as contributions and recognised as part of the cost of the investment.

25(r) Property, plant and equipment

[IAS 1.119]

The group’s accounting policy for land and buildings is explained in note 8(a). All other property, plant and equipment is stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Cost may also include transfers from equity of any gains or losses on qualifying cash flow hedges of foreign currency purchases of property, plant and equipment. [IAS 16.73(a), IAS 16.35(b), IAS 16.17, IFRS 9.6.5.11(d)(i)]

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred. [IAS 16.12]

Increases in the carrying amounts arising on revaluation of land and buildings are recognised, net of tax, in other comprehensive income and accumulated in reserves in shareholders’ equity. To the extent that the increase reverses a decrease previously recognised in profit or loss, the increase is first recognised in profit or loss.

Decreases that reverse previous increases of the same asset are first recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent of the remaining surplus attributable to the asset; all other decreases are charged to profit or loss. Each year, the difference between depreciation based on the revalued carrying amount of the asset charged to profit or loss and depreciation based on the asset’s original cost, net of tax, is reclassified from the property, plant and equipment revaluation surplus to retained earnings. [IAS 16.39]

The depreciation methods and periods used by the group are disclosed in note 8(a). [IAS 16.50, IAS 16.73(b)]

The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period. [IAS 16.51]

An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount (note 25(j)). [IAS 36.59]

Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in profit or loss. When revalued assets are sold, it is group policy to transfer any amounts included in other reserves in respect of those assets to retained earnings. [IAS 16.68, IAS 16.71, IAS 16.41]

25(s) Investment properties

[IAS 1.119]

The group’s accounting policy for investment properties is disclosed in note 8(c). [IAS 40.75(a)]

25(t) Intangible assets

[IAS 1.119]

(i) Goodwill

[IAS 1.119]

Goodwill is measured as described in note 25(i). Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in intangible assets. Goodwill is not amortised but it is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired, and is carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold. [IFRS 3.32, IAS 36.10]

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units for the purpose of impairment testing. The allocation is made to those cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose. The units or groups of units are identified at the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes, being the operating segments (note 2). [IAS 36.80]

(ii) Trademarks, licences and customer contracts

[IAS 1.119]

Separately acquired trademarks and licences are shown at historical cost. Trademarks, licences and customer contracts acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. They have a finite useful life and are subsequently carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. [IAS 38.74, IAS 38.97, IAS 38.118(a),(b)]

(iii) Software

[IAS 1.119]

Costs associated with maintaining software programmes are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs that are directly attributable to the design and testing of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the group are recognised as intangible assets where the following criteria are met:

  • it is technically feasible to complete the software so that it will be available for use
  • management intends to complete the software and use or sell it
  • there is an ability to use or sell the software
  • it can be demonstrated how the software will generate probable future economic benefits
  • adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the software are available, and
  • the expenditure attributable to the software during its development can be reliably measured. [IAS 38.57, IAS 38.66, IAS 38.74, IAS 38.97, IAS 38.118(a),(b)]

Directly attributable costs that are capitalised as part of the software include employee costs and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads.

Capitalised development costs are recorded as intangible assets and amortised from the point at which the asset is ready for use.

(iv) Research and development

[IAS 1.119]

Research expenditure and development expenditure that do not meet the criteria in (iii) above are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs previously recognised as an expense are not recognised as an asset in a subsequent period. [IAS 38.54, IAS 38.71]

(v) Amortisation methods and periods

[IAS 1.119]

Refer to note 8(d) for details about amortisation methods and periods used by the group for intangible assets.

25(u) Trade and other payables

[IAS 1.119]

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the group prior to the end of the financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are usually paid within 30 days of recognition. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. [IFRS 7.21, IFRS 9.5.1.1]

25(v) Borrowings

[IAS 1.119]

Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently Example accounting policiesmeasured at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method.

Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw-down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalised as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates. [IFRS 7.21, IFRS 9.5.1.1, IFRS 9.4.2.1]

Preference shares, which are mandatorily redeemable on a specific date, are classified as liabilities. The dividends on these preference shares are recognised in profit or loss as finance costs. [IAS 32.18]

The fair value of the liability portion of a convertible bond is determined using a market interest rate for an equivalent non-convertible bond. This amount is recorded as a liability on an amortised cost basis until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds. The remainder of the proceeds is allocated to the conversion option. This is recognised and included in shareholders’ equity, net of income tax effects. [IAS 32.18, IAS 32.28, IAS 32.AG31(a)]

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss as other income or finance costs. [IFRS 9.3.3.1, IFRS 9.3.3.3]

Where the terms of a financial liability are renegotiated and the entity issues equity instruments to a creditor to extinguish all or part of the liability (debt for equity swap), a gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss, which is measured as the difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability and the fair value of the equity instruments issued. [IFRIC 19.9]

Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. [IAS 1.69]

25(w) Borrowing costs

[IAS 1.119, IAS 23.8]

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale.

Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings, pending their expenditure on qualifying assets, is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

25(x) Provisions

[IAS 1.119]

Provisions for legal claims, service warranties and make good obligations are recognised when the group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses. [IAS 37.14, IAS 37.24, IAS 37.63]

Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.

Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense. [IAS 37.36, IAS 37.45, IAS 37.47, IAS 37.60]

25(y) Employee benefits

[IAS 1.119]

This note is provided in a separate section, use this link here ‘Employee benefits accounting policies‘.

25(z) Contributed equity

[IAS 1.119]

Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Mandatorily redeemable preference shares are classified as liabilities (note 7(g)). [IAS 32.18(a)]

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of Example accounting policiestax, from the proceeds. [IAS 32.35, IAS 32.37]

Where any group company purchases the company’s equity instruments, for example as the result of a share buy-back or a share-based payment plan, the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs (net of income taxes), is deducted from equity attributable to the owners of RePort Co. PLC as treasury shares until the shares are cancelled or reissued.

Where such ordinary shares are subsequently reissued, any consideration received, net of any directly attributable incremental transaction costs and the related income tax effects, is included in equity attributable to the owners of RePort Co. PLC. [IAS 32.33]

Shares held by the RePort Co. PLC. Employee Share Trust are disclosed as treasury shares and deducted from contributed equity. [IAS 32.33]

25(aa) Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorised and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period. [IAS 10.12, IAS 10.13]

25(ab) Earnings per share

[IAS 1.119]

(i) Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing: [IAS 33.10]

  • the profit attributable to owners of the company, excluding any costs of servicing equity other than ordinary shares
  • by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in ordinary shares issued during the year and excluding treasury shares (note 9(b)).
(ii) Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account: [IAS 33.30]

  • the after-income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential ordinary shares, and
  • the weighted average number of additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.

25(ac) Rounding of amounts

[IAS 1.119]

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest thousand currency units unless otherwise stated. [IAS 1.51(e)]

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Example accounting policies

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Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies Example accounting policies

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